Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang 11800, Malaysia

2 School of Economics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, 455000, China


A hybrid PV/battery/DG energy production system is configured and optimized in this study for powering a network of a remote rural of china. The target of system design is to minimize the system’s fuel costs subject to the load demanded (LD) and several limitations. Thus, the concept comprises a problem of optimization which has been solved by a new optimization method using the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) and a modified version of Sparrow Search Optimizer (MSSO). The achievements of the suggested technique are evaluated in various seasons and also in weekends and weekdays to indicate their impact on the operating cost of the PV/Diesel BESS system. The achievements show that in summer and winter, the costs of weekday are lower toward costs of weekend fuel. Moreover, the fuel cost of summer is lower than the fuel costs of winter that is due to lower demand in summer and also the more summer radiation levels mean less usage of auxiliary sources. 


Li H., Fu H. Hybrid Modified Sparrow Search Algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming for Solving the Cost Minimization of a Hybrid PV/DG/BESS. J. Journal of Smart Energy and Sustainability, 2022; 1(2): 183-195. 

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